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A Biochip is a combination of minute DNA spots hooked up to a hard surface. Scientists use DNA Biochips to check the expression levels of huge number of genes at the same time. Each DNA spot contains picomoles of a precised DNA sequence known as a probe. These can be tiny section of a gene or a DNA particle that are used to cross breed a cDNA or cRNA. Probe-target cross breeding is usually quantified and detected by detection of fluorophore. Silver or chemiluminescence-labeled targets to identify corresponding abundance of nucleic acid sequences in the target. The basic microarray
Since an array can contain tens of thousands of probes, a Biochip experiment can result in many genetic tests in parallel. Therefore arrays have dramatically accelerated many types of investigation. In standard microarrays, the probes are incorporated and then hooked up via surface engineering to a hard surface by a covalent bond to a chemical matrix (via epoxy-silane, amino-silane, lysine, polyacrylamide or others). The solid surface can be glass or a silicon chip, in which case they are colloquially known as an Affy chip when an Affymetrix chip is used. Other microarray podiums, such as Illumina, use microscopic beads, instead of the large hard support. As a substitute, microarrays can be constructed by the direct incorporation of oligonucleotide probes on solid surfaces. DNA arrays are dissimilar from other types of microarray only in that they either calculatr DNA or use DNA as part of its recognition system. Biochips can be used to measure changes in expression levels, to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), or to genotype or targeted resequencing. Microarrays also vary in fabrication, workings, accuracy, efficiency, and expense. Additional factors for microarray experiments are the experimental design and the methods of examining the data. Principle
The basic principle behind microarrays is implanting between two DNA strands, the property of complementary nucleic acid sequences to specifically couple with each other by forming hydrogen bonds between complementary nucleotide base pairs. A high number of complementary base pairs in a nucleotide sequence means rigid non-covalent bonding between the two strands. After cleaning off non-specific bonding sequences, only strongly paired strands will remain implanted. Fluorescently labeled target sequences that bind to a probe sequence release a signal that depends on the hybridization conditions (such as temperature), and washing after hybridization. Complete potential of the signal, from a spot, depends upon the quantity of target sample binding to the probes present on that spot. Microarrays use relative quantitation in which the intensity of a feature is compared to the intensity of the same feature under a dissimilar condition, and the identity of the feature is known by its position.
OMICS Group International is an amalgamation of Open Access publications and worldwide international science conferences and events. Established in the year 2007 with the sole aim of making the information on Sciences and technology ‘Open Access’, OMICS Group publishes 400 online open access journals in all aspects of Science, Engineering, Management and Technology journals. OMICS Group has been instrumental in taking the knowledge on Science & technology to the doorsteps of ordinary men and women. Research Scholars, Students, Libraries, Educational Institutions, Research centers and the industry are main stakeholders that benefited greatly from this knowledge dissemination. OMICS Group also organizes 300 International Conferences annually across the globe, where knowledge transfer takes place through debates, round table discussions, poster presentations, workshops, symposia and exhibitions. Moreover, OMICS Group is featured with 30,000 editorial board members, 35,000 reviewer, 1000 international associations and 3 million readers.
DNAchips Associations • The Korean BioChip Society (KBCS) • American Dental Association • The Korean BioChip Society • IEEE • Biomedical Engineering Student Society • BioDot • National Association for Biomedical Research (NABR) • Biomedical Associations of Wisconsin • California Biomedical Research Association • North Carolina Biomedical Association: NCBA
Biochips Companies • AVIVA Biosciences • Advalytix • Alpha Innotech • Applied Precision • Berthold Technologies • Ciphergen Biosystems • CombiMatrix • EPFL • Genetix • Illumina
Conferences related to Biochips •The 2nd Regional Symposium on BIOSENSORS, BIODIAGNOSTICS BIOCHIPS. • 3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors and Bioelectronics • 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) • IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (BioCAS) • 2014 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC) • IEEE International Solid- State Circuits Conference - (ISSCC) • IEEE Sensors Applications Symposium (SAS) • IEEE Sensors • IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits • IEEE Topical Conference on Biomedical Wireless Technologies, Networks, and Sensing Systems (BioWireless)
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