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Omics International publishes 281 Open Access Articles in 4 International Journals it has 2 Upcoming Conferences and 3 Previous Conferences with 710 Conference Proceedings and 76 National symposiums so far in the field.
Alzheimer's disease is a daunting diagnosis. But working closely with your health care team to find the best strategies to manage your symptoms can help you cope and make life better.
Alzheimer's drugs offer one strategy to help manage memory loss, thinking and reasoning problems, and day-to-day function. Unfortunately, Alzheimer's drugs don't work for everyone, and they can't cure the disease or stop its progression. Over time, their effects wear off. Research into more-effective Alzheimer's drugs is on-going. But even if researchers discover better drugs, it will always be important to build a health care team that helps you explore all your treatment options. That may involve taking medication, tapping into your support network, and accessing community resources and services.
OMICS International through its Open access initiatives is committed to make genuine and reliable contributions to the scientific community by publishing research work and conference paper related to such disorders. It is known that OMICS Group hosts over 700 edge peer reviewed Open Access Journals which contains over 75000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members. Omics International organizes over more than 1000 Global Events annually with support from 1000 more scientific Societies. Its publishing group journals have over 5 million readers and the fame and success of the same can be attributed to the strong editorial board that ensure a quality and quick review process checker.
The National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke (NINCDS) and the Alzheimer's disease and Related Disorders Association (ADRDA) established the most commonly used NINCDS-ADRDA Alzheimer's Criteria for diagnosis in 1984, extensively updated in 2007. These criteria require that the presence of cognitive impairment, and a suspected dementia syndrome, be confirmed by neuropsychological testing for a clinical diagnosis of possible or probable AD. A histopathology confirmation including a microscopic examination of brain tissue is required for a definitive diagnosis. Good statistical reliability and validity have been shown between the diagnostic criteria and definitive histopathological confirmation. Eight cognitive domains are most commonly impaired in AD memory, language, perceptual skills, attention, constructive abilities, orientation, problem solving and functional abilities. These domains are equivalent to the NINCDS-ADRDA Alzheimer's Criteria as listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published by the American Psychiatric Association.
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Alzheimer's Association International Conference
22-28 July 2016, Toronto, Canada
31st International Conference of Alzheimer's disease International
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There are no drug treatments available that can provide a cure for Alzheimer's disease. However, medicines have been developed that can improve symptoms, or temporarily slow down their progression, in some people. This factsheet explains how the main drug treatments for Alzheimer's disease work, where to access them, and when they can be prescribed and used effectively.
All drugs have at least two names: a generic name, which identifies the substance and a proprietary (trade) name, which may vary depending upon the company that manufactures it. This factsheet uses generic names and gives the most common trade names in brackets.
What are the main drugs used?
There are two main types of medication used to treat Alzheimer's disease - cholinesterase inhibitors and NMDA receptor antagonists - which work in different ways. Cholinesterase inhibitors include donepezil hydrochloride (Aricept), rivastigmine (Exelon) and galantamine (Reminyl). The NMDA receptor antagonist is memantine (Ebixa).
How do they work?
Donepezil (Aricept), rivastigmine (Exelon) and galantamine (Reminyl) Research has shown that the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease show a loss of nerve cells that use a chemical called acetylcholine as a chemical messenger. The loss of these nerve cells is related to the severity of symptoms that people experience.
Donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine prevent an enzyme known as acetylcholinesterase from breaking down acetylcholine in the braiIncreased concentrations of acetylcholine lead to increased communication between the nerve cells that use acetylcholine as a chemical messenger, which may in turn temporarily improve or stabilise the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.
All three cholinesterase inhibitors work in a similar way, but one might suit an individual better than another, particularly in terms of side-effects experienced.
Memantine (Ebixa) The action of memantine is quite different from, and more complex than, that of donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine. Memantine blocks a messenger chemical known as glutamate. Glutamate is released in excessive amounts when brain cells are damaged by Alzheimer's disease and this causes the brain cells to be damaged further. Memantine can protect brain cells by blocking these effects of excess glutamate.
Between 40 and 70 per cent of people with Alzheimer's disease benefit from cholinesterase inhibitor treatment, but it is not effective for everyone and may improve symptoms only temporarily, between six and 12 months in most cases. According to an Alzheimer's Society survey of 4,000 people, those using these treatments often experience improvements in motivation, anxiety levels and confidence, in addition to daily living, memory and thinking. It is not clear whether the cholinesterase inhibitors bring benefits for behavioral such as agitation or aggression. Trials have given mixed results here. Research does suggest that these drugs (and memantine) bring some relief from the carer's perspective.
Memantine is licensed for the treatment of moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease. It can temporarily slow down the progression of symptoms, including everyday function, in people in the middle and later stages of the disease. There is evidence that memantine may also help behavioural symptoms such as aggression and agitation (see our factsheeets 408, Drugs used to relieve depression and behavioural symptoms and 509, Dealing with aggressive behavior).
In 2010, there were between 21 and 35 million people worldwide with AD. It most often begins in people over 65 years of age; although 4% to 5% of cases are early-onset Alzheimer's which begin before this. It affects about 6% of people 65 years and older. In 2010, dementia resulted in about 486,000 deaths. It was first described by, and later named after, German psychiatrist and pathologist Aloes Alzheimer in 1906. In developed countries, AD is one of the most financially costly diseases. In the United States, Alzheimer prevalence was estimated to be 1.6% in 2000 both overall and in the 65-74 age groups, with the rate increasing to 19% in the 75–84 groups and to 42% in the greater than 84 group. Prevalence rates in less developed regions are lower. The World Health Organization estimated that in 2005, 0.379% of people worldwide had dementia, and that the prevalence would increase to 0.441% in 2015 and to 0.556% in 2030. Other studies have reached similar conclusions. Another study estimated that in 2006, 0.40% of the world population were afflicted by AD, and that the prevalence rate would triple and the absolute number would quadruple by 2050.
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This page was last updated on 11th Sep, 2015
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