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As per available reports about 1566 Open Access Articles, 4 Conference 499 National symposiums and 3309 Conference proceedings are being related to the Surface Water.
Surface water is water on the surface of the planet such as in a stream, river, lake, wetland, or ocean. It can be contrasted with groundwater and atmospheric water. Non-saline surface water is replenished by precipitation and by recruitment from ground-water. It is lost through evaporation, seepage into the ground where it becomes ground-water, used by plants for transpiration, abstracted by mankind for agriculture, living, industry etc. or discharged to the sea where it becomes saline.
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Importance and scope :
Surface and ground water are two separate entities, so they must be regarded as such. However, there is an ever-increasing need for management of the two as they are part of an interrelated system that is paramount when the demand for water exceeds the available supply. Depletion of surface and ground water sources for public consumption (including industrial, commercial, and residential) is caused by over-pumping. Aquifers near river systems that are over-pumped have been known to deplete surface water sources as well. Research supporting this has been found in numerous water budgets for a multitude of cities.
Nevertheless, the world’s water market is estimated to be $483 billion in 2010.2 This includes capital expenditures and operating expenditures. Capital expenditures on water infrastructure are estimated to be $89 billion in 2010, rising to $131 billion by 2016 (a compound annual growth rate [CAGR] of 6.4%). Total capital expenditures on wastewater infrastructure are estimated at $82 billion in 2010, rising to $115 billion by 2016 (a CAGR of 5.6%). 3 The largest markets are led by the United States, which is both large and growing rapidly. As the reports on the dozen states will reveal, there are many different opportunities in the US, especially if governments make the commitments to address what are often large and growing problems. Some of those problems have been brought to harsher light in 2010, as severe weather has greatly taxed existing approaches and infrastructure. The US is not alone. Japan is large but hardly growing. China’s market, by contrast, is quite large and expected to grow between 6% and 9.9% annually. This means China could grow from an estimated $48 billion in 2010 to as much as $83 billion by 2016, if it grows at 9.9% annually. Spain may grow from $11 billion in 2010 to $25 billion in 2016. That is substantial growth as well.
Relevant Society and Associations :
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This page was last updated on 14th Sep, 2015
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