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Nucleophilicity


As per available reports about 37 Relevant Journals, 32 Conferences, 13 Workshops are presently dedicated exclusively to nucleophiles and about 159 articles are being published on nucleophilicity.

A nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction. All molecules or ions with a free pair of electrons or at least one pi bond can act as nucleophiles. Because nucleophiles donate electrons, they are by definition Lewis bases.  Nucleophilicity refers to a substance's nucleophilic character and is often used to compare the affinity of atoms.

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Scope and Importance:

Many schemes attempting to quantify relative nucleophilic strength have been devised. The more basic the ion (the higher the pKa of the conjugate acid) the more reactive it is as a nucleophile. In a given group, polarizability is more important in the determination of the Nucleophilicity, The easier it is to distort the electron cloud around an atom or molecule the more readily it will react.

In nucleophilic reactions, the size of the nucleophile can be an important (steric) factor. Smaller is more effective. Thus, although the nucleophilic atom in the two species below is the same (oxygen) and they have similar structures, methoxide ion is a more effective nucleophile than t-butoxide ion, even though they are about equally effective as bases. The larger t-butoxide ion has more difficulty reaching an electrophilic center, which is typically a carbon buried at the core of the molecular structure. That is not a problem when it acts as a base because acidic protons usually lie in the periphery of the molecule and are easily accessible.

The most common type of nucleophiles are those containing atoms with unshared electron pairs. A negatively charged species is usually a stronger nucleophile or base than its neutral analog. Thus, hydroxide ion is stronger, both as a base and as a nucleophile, than water. Carbon bonded to a metal has strong negative character, revealed when writing resonance structures. The carbon atom in such molecules is considered a strong nucleophile. Recall the structures of n-butyllithium and Grignard (organomagnesium) reagents from previous notes. The pi bond is a region of high electron density. Pi bonds are not as strong as sigma bonds, which means that pi electrons are more available for reactions because pi bonds are more easily broken. Molecules containing pi bonds are considered weak nucleophiles or bases, because they can react with strong acids or electrophiles. Periodic trends in nucleophilicity are such that, other factors being similar, nucleophilicity increases from right to left across the same row, and from top to bottom across the same period or group. This trend is different from the basicity trend, which increases in the same way across a row, but from bottom to top within a period.

Market Analysis:

The market for nucleophilic substances is expected to grow at a significant rate. Global Market is expected to reach USD 2.56 Billion by 2022. Constant technological advancements pertaining to the development of nucleophiles which can be used to boost usage rates over the forecast period.

International symposium and workshops

List of Best International Conferences:

  1. 6th Asia-Pacific Pharma Congress July 14-16, 2016 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  2. Nanomedicine Conference July 25-27, 2016 Bangkok, Thailand
  3. 8th Pharmaceutics and Novel Drug Delivery Systems Conference 
    March 07-09, 2016 Madrid, Spain
  4. Industrial Pharmacy Conference April 28-29, 2016 Dubai, UAE
  5. 4th European Pharma Congress June 13-15, 2016 Berlin, Germany
  6. American Pharma Expo June 20-22, 2016 New Orleans, USA
  7. 4th Neuropharmacology Conference September 15-17, 2016 San Antonio, USA
  8. 2nd Pharma Middle East Congress October 12-14, 2016 Dubai, UAE
  9. 4th Clinical Pharmacy Conference Oct 31 - Nov 01, 2016 Las Vegas, USA
  10. 2nd Drug Discovery Conference Oct 31-Nov 02, 2016 Istanbul, Turkey
  11. World Congress and Exhibition on Antibiotics 
    September 14-16, 2015 Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
  12. 4th International Conference and Exhibition on Immunology 
    September 28-30, 2015 Houston, Texas, USA
  13. International Conference on Lipid Science & Technology 
    November 30-December 02, 2015 San Francisco, USA
  14. 3rd International Conference on Genomics & Pharmacogenomics 
    September 21-23, 2015 San Antonio, USA
  15. 4th International Conference on Clinical Microbiology and Microbial Genomics 
    October 05-07, 2015 Philadelphia, USA
  16. ICI 2015: 17th International Conference on Immunology 
    September 25 - 26, 2015 London, United Kingdom
  17. 4th European Congress of Immunology (ECI 2015) In Vienna, Austria
  18. British Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Annual Meeting 2015 
    September 4- 6, 2015 Telford, United Kingdom

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This page was last updated on 18th Sep, 2015

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