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Fossil fuels like coal and oil have played a critical role in humanity’s recent history, providing a vast energy source which has fueled much of society’s development and industrialization. These fuels are still the primary source of energy for the world’s developed nations, and yet it is agreed that these traditional sources of energy cannot continue to power humanity’s growth into the future. The demand for oil production is at an all-time high, and will only increase as developing nations continue to grow.
OMICS Group International is an amalgamation of Open Access productions and overall worldwide science meetings and occasions. Secured in the year 2007 with the sole point of making the data on Sciences and innovation Open Access'', OMICS Group distributes 400 online open get to academic diaries in all parts of Science, Engineering, Management and Technology diaries. OMICS Group has been instrumental in taking the learning on Science & engineering to the doorsteps of common men and ladies. Research Scholars, Students, Libraries, Educational Institutions, Research focuses and the business are principle stakeholders that profited incredibly from this information scattering. OMICS Group likewise arranges 300 International meetings yearly over the globe, where learning exchange happens through level headed discussions, round table examinations, blurb presentations, workshops, symposia and displays.
Furthermore, many experts predict that the rate of world oil production has already peaked, and that it will only decrease from now onwards as fewer and fewer oil reserves are discovered. Microbial biofuel production is already in use, principally in the form of sugar fermentation by yeast to produce ethanol. Although many microbes have been used in ethanol production, the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is primarily used in industry, using starch and sugars from plants as the starting material for the process .The most common feedstocks (carbon source utilized by the microbes) are agricultural products which can easily be processed to create the simple sugars needed for fermentation. This is primarily corn in the United States, wheat in the European Union, and sugar cane in Brazil. Ethanol fermentation by S. cerevisiae is primarily done via the standard glycolysis pathway. In the case of corn and other starch-containing plants, the simple sugars necessary are formed via the hydrolysis of starch to yield monosaccharide subunits, whereas the sugars in sugarcane are hydrolyzed only once and then go straight into the pathway. In the process, a single molecule of glucose is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvate. Anaerobic conditions are required so that molecular oxygen is not available for use as an electron acceptor, and instead pyruvate must be used as the terminal electron acceptor. This fermentative process involves the decarboxylation of pyruvate to form carbon dioxide and acetaldehyde, and the subsequent reduction of acetaldehyde to produce ethanol. Ethanol fermentation by yeast also helps to address the problem of greenhouse gas emissions, although it does not represent a perfect solution from an environmental perspective either. All biofuels with a positive NEB should theoretically emit less carbon dioxide, because the process of carbon fixation occurring within the growing plants should counterbalance the carbon dioxide emissions of both the invested fossil fuel energy and the combustion of ethanol. However, in reality the nitrogen-rich fertilizer used to sustain the plants and the addition of extra plant matter into the soil supports communities of bacteria that produce nitrous oxide, a much more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. Considering this entire system, producing ethanol via corn fermentation emits approximately 88% of the greenhouse gas content of gasoline yielding the same amount of energy. This mediocre improvement, coupled with the other environmental implications such as pesticides, make most current ethanol fermentation techniques of limited use, although they are nevertheless a positive alternative to fossil fuels.
Conferences in Omics-
World Congress and Expo on Applied Microbiology
International Congress and Expo on Biofuels & Bioenergy
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This page was last updated on 01st Nov, 2014
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