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Fluoroscopy produces real-time images of internal structures of the body in a similar fashion to radiography, but employs a constant input of x-rays, at a lower dose rate. Contrast media, such as barium, iodine, and air are used to visualize internal organs as they work. Fluoroscopy is also used in image-guided procedures when constant feedback during a procedure is required. An image receptor is required to convert the radiation into an image after it has passed through the area of interest. Early on this was a fluorescing screen, which gave way to an Image Amplifier (IA) which was a large vacuum tube that had the receiving end coated with cesium iodide, and a mirror at the opposite end. Eventually the mirror was replaced with a TV camera.
Projectional radiographs, more commonly known as x-rays, are often used to determine the type and extent of a fracture as well as for detecting pathological changes in the lungs. With the use of radio-opaque contrast media, such as barium, they can also be used to visualize the structure of the stomach and intestines - this can help diagnose ulcers or certain types of colon cancer.
Magnetic resonance imaging:
A magnetic resonance imaging instrument (MRI scanner), or "nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging" scanner as it was originally known, uses powerful magnets to polarize and excite hydrogen nuclei (single proton) in water molecules in human tissue, producing a detectable signal which is spatially encoded, resulting in images of the body. The MRI machine emits a RF (radio frequency) pulse that specifically binds to hydrogen. The system sends the pulse to the area of the body to be examined. The pulse makes the protons in that area absorb the energy needed to make them spin in a different direction. This is the "resonance" part of MRI. The RF pulse makes them (only the one or two extra unmatched protons per million) spin at a specific frequency, in a specific direction.
Modern MRI instruments are capable of producing images in the form of 3D blocks, which may be considered a generalization of the single-slice, topographic, concept. Unlike CT, MRI does not involve the use of ionizing radiation and is therefore not associated with the same health hazards. For example, because MRI has only been in use since the early 1980s, there are no known long-term effects of exposure to strong static fields (this is the subject of some debate; see 'Safety' in MRI) and therefore there is no limit to the number of scans to which an individual can be subjected, in contrast with X-ray and CT. However, there are well-identified health risks associated with tissue heating from exposure to the RF field and the presence of implanted devices in the body, such as pace makers.
Medical ultrasonography :
Medical ultrasonography uses high frequency broadband sound waves in the megahertz range that are reflected by tissue to varying degrees to produce (up to 3D) images. This is commonly associated with imaging the fetus in pregnant women. Uses of ultrasound are much broader, however. Other important uses include imaging the abdominal organs, heart, breast, muscles, tendons, arteries and veins. While it may provide less anatomical detail than techniques such as CT or MRI, it has several advantages which make it ideal in numerous situations, in particular that it studies the function of moving structures in real-time, emits no ionizing radiation, and contains speckle that can be used in elastography. Ultrasound is also used as a popular research tool for capturing raw data, that can be made available through an ultrasound, for the purpose of tissue characterization and implementation of new image processing techniques.
OMICS Group International is a pioneer and leading science event organizer Established in the year 2007, With the aim of accelerating scientific discoveries which publishes around 400 open access journals and conducts over 300 Medical, Clinical, Engineering, Life Sciences, Pharm scientific conferences all over the globe annually with the support of more than 1000 scientific associations and 30,000 editorial board members and 3.5 million followers to its credit OMICS Group International are instrumental in providing a meaningful platform for the world renowned scientists, researchers, students, academicians, institutions, entrepreneurs and industries through its 300 International Conferences and events annually throughout the globe to raise and discuss the developments in the field of OMICS Study.
Conference on Imaging around globe :
2nd International Conference on Bio imaging (BIO IMAGING 2015)Lisbon, Portugal
Digital PathologySan Francisco, California, United States of America
SPIE Medical Imaging 2015 Orlando, Florida, United States of America
World Bio Summit & Expo Dubai, United Arab Emirates
International Multi Conference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2015 Hong Kongv
The 14th Asian Australasian Congress of Neurological Surgeons Jeju, Korea (south)
SPIE Sensing Technology + Applications Baltimore, MD, United States of America
Relevant Conferences from OMICS:
2nd International Conference on Radiology and Imaging Raleigh, North Carolina, USA
3rd International Conference on Radiology and Imaging Toronto, Canada
Relevant Associations and Societies :
European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) Society of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
Society of breast imaging
Society of imaging and technology
International cancer imaging society
North American society of cardiovascular imaging
This page will be updated regularly.
This page was last updated on 10th Oct, 2014
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