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This hydrophobic enzyme, Ac-SOD, associated with liposomes (so called Ac-SOD-enzymosomes), is able to exert its therapeutic activity while circulating in the organism, regardless of the integrity of the liposomes. Ac-SOD-enzymosomes have a more rapid anti-inflammatory effect than SOD liposomes, confirming that the release of Ac-SOD from liposomes is no longer required to achieve dismutation.
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Scope and Importance:
A theoretical advantage of the ‘immuno-enzymosomes’ over antibody-enzyme conjugates is that many more than one enzyme molecule can be included in one targeted carrier unit. Under the proper conditions, this may create the opportunity to increase the enzyme density at the tumor cell surface, which accordingly may lead to a more efficient conversion of the prodrug into the active cytotoxic parent compound. Earlier we have successfully prepared immuno-enzymosomes able to specifically bind in vitro to human ovarian carcinoma cells and subsequently convert the prodrugs epirubicin-glucuronide and daunorubicin-glucuronide into their toxic parent compounds.
The therapeutic proteins like enzymes can be delivered through several approaches such as using polymeric carriers; aqueous space of lipid and bilayered vesicles but their delivery by attachment on surface of liposomes has shown the prominent response for the development of antibodies at the target site. Enzymes upon complexing with lipids generate enzymosomes. Superoxide Dismutase (a therapeutic agent for oxidative stress related diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and ischaemia/reperfusion situations) loaded enzymosomes have been developed with long circulation time in the blood, in order to accumulate at inflammed target sites, while maintaining enzymatic activity in its intact form.
Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) is a two-step therapeutic approach designed to generate a high concentration of anticancer molecules only in close proximity to tumor cell membranes. The first step usually entails an antibody in an antibody–enzyme conjugate that binds to antigens preferentially expressed on tumor cells, or present in the tumor interstitium. The second step involves the injection of a nontoxic prodrug, which is matched with the enzyme, after completion of the enzyme targeting step and clearance of the conjugates from blood and normal tissues. Near the tumor cell membrane, the prodrug is converted into a cytotoxic drug by the targeted enzyme. At present, many ADEPT systems have been tested in preclinical settings and some are entering clinical trials. Recently, we proposed to improve ADEPT by using immuno liposomes as targeted carriers for the prodrug-activating enzymes (immuno-enzymosomes).
The market for enzymosomes is expected to grow at a significant rate. Global Market is expected to reach USD 2.56 Billion by 2022. Constant technological advancements pertaining to the development to boost usage rates over the forecast period.
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