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Enzyme


Enzymes

As per available reports about 1200  relevant journals, 14 Conferences and 40 workshops are presently dedicated exclusively Enzymes and about 106 articles are being published on Enzymes.

Enzymes are large biological molecules responsible for the thousands of metabolic processes that sustain life. They are highly selective catalysts, greatly accelerating both the rate and specificity of metabolic reactions, from the digestion of food to the synthesis of DNA. Most enzymes are proteins, although some catalytic RNA molecules have been identified. Enzymes adopt a specific three-dimensional structure, and may employ organic (e.g. biotin) and inorganic (e.g. magnesium ion) cofactors to assist in catalysis. Enzymes act by converting starting molecules (substrates) into different molecules (products). Almost all chemical reactions in a biological cell need enzymes in order to occur at rates sufficient for life. Since enzymes are selective for their substrates and speed up only a few reactions from among many possibilities, the set of enzymes made in a cell determines which metabolic pathways occur in that cell, tissue and organ. Organelles are also differentially enriched in sets of enzymes to compartmentalize function within the cell. Significance of Enzymes: 1. Enzyme production (transcription and translation of enzyme genes) can be enhanced or diminished by a cell in response to changes in the cell's environment. This form of gene regulation is called enzyme induction and inhibition.

OMICS International Organizes 1000+ Global Events inclusive of 300+ Conferences, 500+ Workshops and 200+ Symposiums Every Year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific societies and Publishes 500+ Open access journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members. OMICS International Conferences will enhance the knowledge of all the participants in different fields and will be a varied combination of eminent speakers, industry professionals, social activist, students and research scholars. OMICS International pharma conferences are the novel developments and to consider, and conflate ideas and realities through practical experiences.

Scope and Importance:

Most enzymes are proteins, although some catalytic RNA molecules have been identified. Enzymes adopt a specific three-dimensional structure, and may employ organic (e.g. biotin) and inorganic (e.g. magnesium ion) cofactors to assist in catalysis. Enzymes act by converting starting molecules (substrates) into different molecules (products). Almost all chemical reactions in a biological cell need enzymes in order to occur at rates sufficient for life. Since enzymes are selective for their substrates and speed up only a few reactions from among many possibilities, the set of enzymes made in a cell determines which metabolic pathways occur in that cell, tissue and organ. Organelles are also differentially enriched in sets of enzymes to compartmentalize function within the cell. Significance of Enzymes: 1. Enzyme production (transcription and translation of enzyme genes) can be enhanced or diminished by a cell in response to changes in the cell's environment. This form of gene regulation is called enzyme induction and inhibition. For example, bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics such as penicillin because enzymes called beta-lactamases are induced that hydrolyze the crucial beta-lactam ring within the penicillin molecule. Another example are enzymes in the liver called cytochrome P450 oxidases, which are important in drug metabolism. Induction or inhibition of these enzymes can cause drug interactions. 2. Enzymes can be compartmentalized, with different metabolic pathways occurring in different cellular compartments. These patterns can be investigated by enzyme localization studies. For example, fatty acids are synthesized by one set of enzymes in the cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus and used by a different set of enzymes as a source of energy in the mitochondrion, through β-oxidation. 3. Enzymes can be regulated by inhibitors and activators. For example, the end product(s) of a metabolic pathway are often inhibitors for one of the first enzymes of the pathway (usually the first irreversible step, called committed step), thus regulating the amount of end product made by the pathways. Such a regulatory mechanism is called a negative feedback mechanism, because the amount of the end product produced is regulated by its own concentration. Negative feedback mechanisms can effectively adjust the rate of synthesis of intermediate metabolites according to the demands of the cells. This helps allocate materials and energy economically, and prevents the manufacture of excess end products. The control of enzymatic action helps to maintain a stable internal environment in living organisms.

Market Analysis:

Enzymes can be regulated through covalent modulation. This can include phosphorylation, myristoylation and glycosylation. For example, in the response to insulin, the phosphorylation of multiple enzymes, including glycogen synthase, helps control the synthesis or degradation of glycogen and allows the cell to respond to changes in blood sugar. Enzymes can be regulated by inhibitors and activators. For example, the end product(s) of a metabolic pathway are often inhibitors for one of the first enzymes of the pathway (usually the first irreversible step, called committed step), thus regulating the amount of end product made by the pathways. Such a regulatory mechanism is called a negative feedback mechanism, because the amount of the end product produced is regulated by its own concentration. Negative feedback mechanisms can effectively adjust the rate of synthesis of intermediate metabolites according to the demands of the cells. This helps allocate materials and energy economically, and prevents the manufacture of excess end products. The control of enzymatic action helps to maintain a stable internal environment in living organisms. 9. Enzymes can be regulated through covalent modulation. This can include phosphorylation, myristoylation and glycosylation. For example, in the response to insulin, the phosphorylation of multiple enzymes, including glycogen synthase, helps control the synthesis or degradation of glycogen and allows the cell to respond to changes in blood sugar.

 International symposium and workshops:

1. Spring International Conference on Advances in Physics (CAP-S) 2015.
2. Fourth International Conference on Multifunctional, Hybrid and Nanomaterials 2015; Spain
3.  Eleventh International Conference on Super plasticizers and Other Chemical Admixtures in Concrete 2015, Canada.
4. . International Exhibition on Surfactant & Detergent (IESD) 2015; China.

List of Best International Conferences:

  1. Protein Engineering ConferenceOctober 26-28, 2015 Chicago, USA    
  2. 5th Cell Science and Stem cell research ConferenceFebruary 29-March 02, 2016 Philadelphia, USA
  3.  Lipids Science Conference , November 30-December 02, 2015 San Francisco, USA
  4. 3rd  Bioprocessing Conference , September 14-15, 2015 Baltimore, USA
  5. Primary Healthcare Conference, April 25-27, 2016 Dubai, UAE
  6. 5th Occupational Health  and Safety Conference, June 06-07, 2016 Dallas, USA
  7. 5th  Family NursingConference , June 13-15, 2016 Philadelphia, USA
  8. Clinical Nurse Specialist Conference,  Nov 7-9, 2016 Brisbane, Australia
  9. 9th Euro Nursing and Medicare Conference, Oct 17-19, 2016  Rome, Italy
  10. 6th Nursing Healthcare Conference, August 15-17, 2016, London, UK
  11. 7th Nursing and Healthcare Conference,  August 18-20, 2016, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  12. 6th Healthcare and Fitness Conference, August 22-24, 2016, Philadelphia, USA
  13. Community Nursing Conference,  June 23-25 ,2016  Cape Town, South Africa
  14. 4th Healthcare Conference, July 18-20, 2016 Brisbane, Australia
  15. 2nd Conference on Hospice and Palliative Care  August 25-27, 2016, Philadelphia, USA
  16. Conference on Pediatric Nursing and Healthcare  July 11-13, 2016 San Antonio, USA
  17. Ultrasonics Conference, October 21-24, 2015 Tapaie, Taiwan
  18. Advances in Physics Conference, April 14-26, 2015.Beijing China,
  19. 4th  Multifunctional, Hybrid and Nanomaterials Conference, March 09-13, 2015.Beijing China,Spain
  20. 11th Super plasticizers and Other Chemical Admixtures in Concrete Conference July 12-15,2015Canada.

Associations and Societies:

  1. American Cancer Society
  2. Enzyme Technical Association
  3. Association of Manufacturers and Formulators of Enzyme Products – Amfep

Companies

• Shell Global
• The Dow Chemical Company
• Eastman Chemical Company
• Chemicals and Fibers Group
• Equistar Chemicals, LP
• Formosa Plastics Corporation, USA

 

This page will be updated regularly.

This page was last updated on 14th Sep, 2015

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