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Cyanobacteria or blue green algae or cyanophyta belongs to the phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy from photosynthesis. These bacteria produce gaseous oxygen as a by-product of photosynthesis and they possess the tendency to convert the early reducing atmosphere into oxidizing environment and thereby stimulating the biodiversity and dramatically changing the composition of life forms on earth. According to endosymbiotic theory, the chloroplasts found in plants and eukaryotic algae have been evolved from cyanobacteria ancestors through endosymbiosis. Cyanobacteria have the potential application of the generation of renewable energy by converting sunlight into electricity.
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The majority of cyanobacteria are aerobic photoautotrophs. Their life processes require only water, carbon dioxide, inorganic substances and light. Photosynthesis is their principal mode of energy metabolism. In the natural environment, however, it is known that some species are able to survive long periods in complete darkness. Furthermore, certain cyanobacteria show a distinct ability for heterotrophic nutrition.
Recent studies have reported that the commercialization of algae can be done for fuel production such as diesel, gasoline and jet fuel. Blue green algae are found to have applicability in the combating bacterial infections in humans as it can produce substances that could serve as anti-inflammatory agents. Researchers from Algenol Company called have cultured genetically modified cyanobacteria in sea water to produce sugar (pyruvate) from CO2 and the water via photosynthesis. Then, the cyanobacteria secrete ethanol from the cell into the salt water. Moreover blue colour extracted from spirulina is used as a natural food colouring agent in food industries.
On the basis of microorganisms, the biofertilizers market has been segmented as follows:Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillu, Cyanobacteria, Phosphate solubilizing bacteria ,Others (potash-mobilizing, zinc biofertilizers, sulfur-solubilizing biofertilizers, and manganese solubilizer). The increasing awareness regarding health and wellness, the growing organic food industry, and the significant increase in the price of chemicals have played a huge role in providing the necessary boost to the global biofertilizers industry. Global Biofertilizers Market is expected to reach USD 1.88 Billion by 2020 at a CAGR of 14.0% from 2015 to 2020. The phosphate-solubilizing segment is the fastest- growing market in the biofertilizers industry across the globe.
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This page was last updated on 12th Sep, 2015
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