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The name originated from the greek words “cryptos”: hidden and “soma”: body. Cryptosomes are lipid vesicles coated by of phosphotidylcholine and polyoxyethylene derivative of phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Cryptosomes is used as ligand mediated drug delivery. Rather than past conviction, this life span is not devastated by the net charges on the lipid vesicle surface and is not an immediate outcome of the high surface hydrophilicity; likewise bilayer smoothness is not a snag for the achievement of long course times.
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Cryptosomes were found to be superior to non-stealth liposomes in prolonging mean survival times in animal models. Cryptosomes are superior type of lipid vesicles with a surface coat results from self-assembly of suitable polyoxyethylene (PEG) derivatives of phosphatidylethanolamine. The life-time and the distribution of the stabilized lipid vesicles were found to be more than standard liposomes made of phosphatidylcholine only, as former circulate 8–10 times more in blood stream. Mixture of distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine-PEG with distearoylphosphatidylcholine can be employed for cryptosome formation.
Liposomes have been extensively used in the past decade as drug carriers. Desired properties of efficient carriers include the ability to evade the mononuclear phagocyte system to prolong the circulation half-life (t1/2), and preferential release of the encapsulated drug at the targeted site. Use of sterically stabilized liposomes has increased the liposome circulation time considerably. “Stealth” liposomes or “cryptosomes” have been used to improve the efficiency of drug delivery by liposomes in tumors.
Conventional liposomes are intercepted at an early stage of circulation by the mononuclear phagocyte system. Unlike conventional liposomes, “stealth” or sterically stabilized liposomes show reduced uptake by the MPS, thus prolonging their circulation half-life considerably. Stealthing of conventional liposomes is done primarily by using polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poloxamers (polymer). The use of PEG conjugated lipids to form stealth liposomes is a well-accepted process. The predecessors of PEG-lipids, namely GM1 ganglioside and phospatidylinositol, though effective in increasing t1/2 of the conventional liposomes, did not match the superior shielding ability of PEG-lipids. Moreover, being a synthetic lipid. Uncovering or de-stealthing of the PEG coated liposomes at the desired sites has proven to be difficult to achieve. It is a type of drug delivery system that more particularly provides a liposomal composition and method for preferential retention of liposomes at or near the target site.
Cryptosomes is a liposomal composition for targeted delivery of drugs. The composition comprises poloxamer molecules and liposomes encapsulating one or more delivery agents. At above the critical micellar temperature of the poloxamer, a fraction of the poloxamer molecules form micelles and another fraction becomes incorporated into the liposome surface, thereby inhibiting their adhesion to cells. At a temperature below the critical micellar temperature, the poloxamer molecules dissociate into monomers allowing the liposomes to adhere to adjacent cells and effecting retention of the liposomes in the surrounding tissue. A method is provided for delivery of agents to target site comprising administering the composition to an individual and cooling the target site to cause retention of the liposomes at or near the target site.
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