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As per available reports about 06 through its relevant journals, 16 Conferences, 02 workshops are presently dedicated exclusively to Antiretrovirals and about 93 articles are being published on Antiretrovirals.
Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. Like antibiotics for bacteria, specific antivirals are used for specific viruses. Unlike most antibiotics, antiviral drugs do not destroy their target pathogen; instead they inhibit their development. Antiviral drugs are one class of antimicrobials, a larger group which also includes antibiotic (also termed antibacterial), antifungal and ant parasitic drugs, or antiviral drugs based on monoclonal antibodies. Most antivirals are considered relatively harmless to the host, and therefore can be used to treat infections. They should be distinguished from viricides, which are not medication but deactivate or destroy virus particles, either inside or outside the body.
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The general idea behind modern antiviral drug design is to identify viral proteins, or parts of proteins, that can be disabled. These "targets" should generally be as unlike any proteins or parts of proteins in humans as possible, to reduce the likelihood of side effects. The targets should also be common across many strains of a virus, or even among different species of virus in the same family, so a single drug will have broad effectiveness. The target proteins can be manufactured in the lab for testing with candidate treatments by inserting the gene that synthesizes the target protein into bacteria or other kinds of cells. The cells are then cultured for mass production of the protein, which can then be exposed to various treatment candidates and evaluated with "rapid screening" technologies.
The treatment of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle. The use of multiple drugs that act on different viral targets is known as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). HAART decreases the patient's total burden of HIV, maintains function of the immune system, and prevents opportunistic infections that often lead to death. HIV treatment has been proven so successful that in many parts of the world HIV has become a chronic condition in which progression to AIDS has become increasingly rare. Anthony Fauci, head of the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases has written "With collective and resolute action now and a steadfast commitment for years to come, an AIDS-free generation is indeed within reach." In the same paper he notes that an estimated 700,000 lives were saved in 2010 alone due to antiretroviral therapy. As another commentary in The Lancet noted, "Rather than dealing with acute and potentially life-threatening complications, clinicians are now confronted with managing a chronic disease that in the absence of a cure will persist for many decades"
The US Department of Health and Human Services and other organizations recommend offering antiretroviral treatment to all patients with HIV. Because of the complexity of selecting and following a regimen, the potential for side-effects, and the importance of taking medications regularly to prevent viral resistance, such organizations emphasize the importance of involving patients in therapy choices and recommend analyzing the risks and the potential benefits.
As of 2014 it is the 10th most populous city in Africa and home to 64% of the Western Cape's population. Recent data on HIV diagnosis make it clear that HIV touches every corner of United States. According to these data, by region, the number of people diagnosed with HIV and the of HIV diagnoses (number of diagnoses per 100,000 people) is highest in the South (24,323 diagnoses or 20.5 per 100,000 people). Next highest is the Northeast (8,908; 15.9), followed by the West (8,013; 10.8) and the Midwest (6,109; 9.0). From 2009 to 2013, the rate of HIV diagnoses in the West decreased, and the rates in the Northeast, Midwest, and South remained stable.
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This page was last updated on 14th Sep, 2015
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