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Aero heating is particularly important in hypersonic flows. However in such flows changes in the chemical nature of the gas can occur due to the very high temperatures existing in such flows. Further, because the temperature rises at the surface are so high in hypersonic flow, radiation heat transfer can become important. Attention wills, therefore, here be restricted to supersonic flows. The maximum temperature to which a gas in the vicinity of the moving body can be heated is close to the so-called stagnation temperature: To = Tn + v2/2Cp where Tn is the temperature of the impacting air, ν is the velocity of the body in flight, and Cn is the specific heat capacity of the gas at constant pressure.Topics like Friction surface temperature air molecules shall be discussed.
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Scope and Importance:
Heat is transferred to the moving aircraft from the region of superheated gas, resulting in aerodynamic heating. Two forms of aerodynamic heating exist—convective and radiative. Convective heating is a consequence of heat transfer from the outer “hot” part of the border layer to the surface of the body. Quantitatively, convective heat flow is defined by the equation
qk = ∝(Te − T) where Te is the equilibrium temperature (the limiting temperature to which the surface of the body would be heated if there were no energy outflow), Tw is the actual temperature of the surface, and a is the coefficient of convective heat exchange, which depends on the velocity and altitude of the aircraft, on the shape and dimensions of the body, and on other factors.
As the aircraft velocity increases, the temperature behind the shock wave and in the boundary layer grows, as a result of which dissociation and ionization of molecules occur. This produces atoms, ions, and electrons which are diffused into a colder region—against the surface of the aircraft. At that point, the reverse reaction occurs (recombination), proceeding with the liberation of heat. This also contributes to the process of convective aerodynamic heating.
Aero heating increases with the speed of the vehicle and is continuous from zero speed. It produces much less heating at subsonic speeds but becomes more important at supersonic speeds. At these speeds it can induce temperatures that begin to weaken the materials that compose the object. The heating effects are greatest at leading edges. Aerodynamic heating is dealt with by the use of high temperature alloys for metals, the addition of insulation of the exterior of the vehicle, or the use of ablative material.
The global airlines industry experienced good growth during the past five years and is expected to reach an estimated $832.8 billion in 2020 with a CAGR of 3.7% over the next seven years (2013-2020). Increasing demand from emerging economies, continuous demand for new low-cost carriers, deregulation, and rising middle class are factors driving growth in markets such as Asia and the Middle East. The global airline industry comprises air transport service providers of passenger and cargo. Industry services are used by individuals and business,—international, domestic, and regional— and governments around the world. The industry is fragmented in terms of suppliers and buyers. North America led this industry, followed by Europe and Asia in 2012. Growth of the North American market is driven by growing demand in long-haul international services.
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