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Electrochemical biosensors are normally based on enzymatic catalysis of a reaction that produces or consumes electrons (such enzymes are rightly called redox enzymes). The sensor substrate usually contains three electrodes; a reference electrode, a working electrode and a counter electrode. The target analyte is involved in the reaction that takes place on the active electrode surface, and the reaction may cause either electron transfer across the double layer (producing a current) or can contribute to the double layer potential (producing a voltage). We can either measure the current (rate of flow of electrons is now proportional to the analyte concentration) at a fixed potential or the potential can be measured at zero current (this gives a logarithmic response). Note that potential of the working or active electrode is space charge sensitive and this is often used. Further, the label-free and direct electrical detection of small peptides and proteins is possible by their intrinsic charges using biofunctionalized ion-sensitive field-effect transistors.
Another example, the potentiometric biosensor, (potential produced at zero current) gives a logarithmic response with a high dynamic range. Such biosensors are often made by screen printing the electrode patterns on a plastic substrate, coated with a conducting polymer and then some protein (enzyme or antibody) is attached. They have only two electrodes and are extremely sensitive and robust. They enable the detection of analytes at levels previously only achievable by HPLC and LC/MS and without rigorous sample preparation. All biosensors usually involve minimal sample preparation as the biological sensing component is highly selective for the analyte concerned. The signal is produced by electrochemical and physical changes in the conducting polymer layer due to changes occurring at the surface of the sensor. Such changes can be attributed to ionic strength, pH, hydration and redox reactions, the latter due to the enzyme label turning over a substrate. Field effect transistors, in which the gate region has been modified with an enzyme or antibody, can also detect very low concentrations of various analytes as the binding of the analyte to the gate region of the FET cause a change in the drain-source current.
The first scientifically proposed as well as successfully commercialized biosensors were those based on electrochemical sensors for multiple analytes. Electrochemical biosensors have been studied for a long time. Currently, transducers based on semiconductors and screen printed electrodes represent a typical platform for the construction of biosensors. Enzymes or enzyme labeled antibodies are the most common biorecognition components of biosensors. The principles of, and the most typical applications for electrochemical biosensors are described in this review. The relevant systems are divided into three types according to the operating principle governing their method of measurement: potentiometric, amperometric and impedimetric transducers, and the representative devices are described for each group.
OMICS Group International is an amalgamation of Open Access publications and worldwide international science conferences and events. Established in the year 2007 with the sole aim of making the information on Sciences and technology ‘Open Access’, OMICS Group publishes 400 online open access journals in all aspects of Science, Engineering, Management and Technology journals. OMICS Group has been instrumental in taking the knowledge on Science & technology to the doorsteps of ordinary men and women. Research Scholars, Students, Libraries, Educational Institutions, Research centers and the industry are main stakeholders that benefitted greatly from this knowledge dissemination. OMICS Group also organizes 300 International Conferences annually across the globe, where knowledge transfer takes place through debates, round table discussions, poster presentations, workshops, symposia and exhibitions. Moreover, OMICS Group is featured with 30,000 editorial board members, 35,000 reviewer, 1000 international associations and 3 million readers.
Societies related to Electrochemical biosensors: •International Society of Electrochemistry
Companies related to Electrochemical biosensors: •Universal Biosensors •DropSens •SciTOX Limited
Conferences related to Electrochemical biosensors: •Biosensors - IEEE Conference •Biosensors 2014 elsevier conference
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This page was last updated on 21st Oct, 2014
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