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Forest, is generally referred as a wood or the woods, it is a community of living organisms, that interact mutually and with the physical environment, characterized by the fact that contain trees, which constitute the larger part of their biomass. A forest is usually an area filled with trees but any tall densely packed area of vegetation may be considered a forest, even underwater vegetation such as kelp forests, or non-vegetation such as fungi, and bacteria. They function as habitats for organisms, hydrologic flow modulators, and soil conservers, constituting one of the most important aspects of the biosphere. Forests are central to all human life because they provide a diverse range of resources: they store carbon, aid in regulating the planetary climate, purify water and mitigate natural hazards such as floods.
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The word "forest" in English means any uninhabited area of non-enclosure are now considered archaic. The word was introduced by the Norman rulers of England as a legal term denoting an uncultivated area legally set aside for hunting by feudal nobility. Other terms used to mean "an area with a high density of trees" are wood, woodland, wold, weald, holt, frith and firth. Unlike forest, these are all derived from Old English and were not borrowed from another language.
Forests can be classified in different ways and to different degrees of specificity. One such way is in terms of the "biome" in which they exist, combined with leaf longevity of the dominant species (whether they are evergreen or deciduous). Another distinction is whether the forests are composed predominantly of broadleaf trees, coniferous (needle-leaved) trees, or mixed.
Boreal forests occupy the subarctic zone and are generally evergreen and coniferous.
Temperate zones support both broadleaf deciduous forests (e.g., temperate deciduous forest) and evergreen coniferous forests (e.g.,temperate coniferous forests and temperate rainforests). Warm temperate zones support broadleaf evergreen forests, including laurel forests.
Tropical and subtropical forests include tropical and subtropical moist forests, tropical and subtropical dry forests, and tropical and subtropical coniferous forests.
Physiognomy classifies forests based on their overall physical structure or developmental stage (e.g. old growth vs. second growth).
Forests can also be classified more specifically based on the climate and the dominant tree species present, resulting in numerous different forest types (e.g., ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forest).
Forests can be found in all regions capable of sustaining tree growth, at altitudes up to the tree line, except where natural fire frequency or other disturbance is too high, or where the environment has been altered by human activity.
The major forested biomes are: rain forest (tropical and temperate), taigatemperate hardwood forest, tropical dry forest.
Forest loss and management
Foresters who practice sustainable forest management focus on the integration of ecological, social, and economic values, often in consultation with local communities and other stakeholders. Anthropogenic factors that can affect forests include logging, urban sprawl, human-caused forest fires, acid rain, invasive species, and theslash and burn practices of swidden agriculture or shifting cultivation. The loss and re-growth of forest leads to a distinction between two broad types of forest, primary or old-growth forest and secondary forest. There are also many natural factors that can cause changes in forests over time including forest fires, insects, diseases, weather, competition between species, etc. In 1997, the World Resources Institute recorded that only 20% of the world's original forests remained in large intact tracts of undisturbed forest. More than 75% of these intact forests lie in three countries—the Boreal forests of Russia and Canada and the rainforest of Brazil.
In 2010, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nationsreported that world deforestation, mainly the conversion of tropical forests to agricultural land, had decreased over the past ten years but still continues at an alarmingly high rate in many countries. Globally, around 13 million hectares of forests were converted to other uses or lost through natural causes each year between 2000 and 2010 as compared to around 16 million hectares per year during the 1990s. The study covered 233 countries and areas. Brazil and Indonesia, which had the highest loss of forests in the 1990s, have significantly reduced their deforestation rates. In addition, ambitious tree planting programmes in countries such as China, India, the United States and Viet Nam - combined with natural expansion of forests in some regions - have added more than seven million hectares of new forests annually. As a result the net loss of forest area was reduced to 5.2 million hectares per year between 2000 and 2010, down from 8.3 million hectares annually in the 1990s. Old-growth forest contains mainly natural patterns of biodiversity in established seral patterns, and they contain mainly species native to the region and habitat. The natural formations and processes have not been affected by humans with a frequency or intensity to change the natural structure and components of the habitat. Secondary forestcontains significant elements of species which were originally from other regions or habitats.
Omics International has organized International Conference on Computer Science and its related topics as well and through its Open Access Initiative is committed to make genuine and reliable contributions to the scientific community. Omics International hosts over 350 leading-edge peer reviewed Open Access journals and has organized over 500 scientific conferences all over the world. OMICS Publishing Group journals have over 3.5 million readers and the fame and success of the same can be attributed to the strong editorial board which contains over 30000 eminent personalities and the rapid, quality and quick review processing. Omics International Conferences make the perfect platform for global networking as it brings together renowned speakers and scientists across the globe to a most exciting and memorable scientific event filled with much enlightening interactive sessions, world class exhibitions and poster presentations.
ICSAEF 2016: August 22-23 at France
Ecological Sustainability 29 Aug- 1 Sep, 2016 at France
5th Biodiversity Conference: March 10-12, 2016 at Spain
2nd Geology Conference: April 21-22, 2016 at UAE
Coastal Zone Management Conference: May 16-18, 2016 at Japan
2nd Geologists Conference: July 21-22, 2016 at Australia
2nd Recycling Conference: July 25-27, 2016 at Germany
2nd Petroliferous Basins Conference: October 31-November 02, 2016 at UK
2nd Green Energy Conference: November 28-30, 2016 at USA
FSC - Forest Stewardship Council
Andaman & Nicobar Islands Forest and Plantation Development Corporation
Carter Holt Harvey
China Sandi Holdings
Great Southern Group
Juken New Zealand
New Zealand Forest Products
Pan Pac Forest Products Ltd
The Paper Province
Western India Plywoods Ltd
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This page was last updated on 16th Sep, 2015
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