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Biomarkers of exposure

Biomarkers are measurable substances or characteristics in the human body that can be used to monitor the presence of a chemical in the body, biological responses, or adverse health effects. Biomarkers used to evaluate potential exposures to pesticides as well as predict effects that may result, allowing us to make decisions that are more protective of human health. Biomarkers of exposure are used to assess the amount of a chemical that is present within the body. Many chemicals can be measured in urine, blood, saliva, and, if they are fat soluble, in body fat and breast milk. Biomarkers of exposure provide information on
• chemical exposures in individuals
• changes in levels over time, and
• variability among different populations.
Biomarkers of Effect Categories
• Bioindicator – An ideal biomarker of effect has an explicitly known mechanism that links the marker and an adverse outcome. Bioindicators provide a high degree of confidence in predicting the potential for adverse effects in an individual or population based on marker levels. When cellular or molecular initiating events can be identified as critical steps in an adverse outcome pathway, bioindicators can be developed in conjunction with high throughput screening assays to provide a rapid and efficient means for early detection of adverse outcomes in target population.
• Undetermined consequence – This biomarkers provides more limited and uncertain indication of the potential for adverse effects, because the events or deterministic linkages in an adverse outcome pathway are less well known.These biomarkers can be used in conjunction with other biomarkers in this or other subgroups to improve the specificity and sensitivity of the overall set of markers for development of an adverse outcome.
• Exogenous surrogate – Some chemicals have adverse effects, which are accompanied by other effects that can be used as surrogate indicators of the main adverse effect of interest. Eg : Measurement in humans of paranitrophenol in the urine has been used as an exogenous surrogate biomarker of exposure to methyl parathion, and as an indicator of the potential for toxicity due to methyl parathion-induced acetylcholinesterase inhibition.

OMICS Group International is a pioneer and leading science event organizer and publishing house, which publishes around 400 Open Access journals and organized 300 International conferences and organizes International workshops and symposiums. Medical, Clinical, Engineering, Life Sciences, Pharma all over the globe. OMICS Publishing Group journals have over 3.5 million readers and the fame and success of the same can be attributed to the strong editorial board which contains over 30000 eminent personalities that ensure a rapid, quality and quick review process. OMICS Group signed an agreement with more than 1000 International Societies to make healthcare information Open Access. OMICS Group Conferences make the perfect platform for global networking as it brings together renowned speakers and scientists across the globe to a most exciting and memorable scientific event filled with much enlightening interactive sessions, world class exhibitions and poster presentations. With a view to advance scientific knowledge and to positively influence the major global challenges of the society with science-based solutions, OMICS Group initiated the 'Young Scientist Awards to the enterprising young science researchers and scholars across the globe. OMICS group services are open to everybody that seeks to “advance science, engineering and technology through research and innovation”. OMICS Group also provides a dynamic platform for companies to exhibit, launch and showcase their unique strengths, products and services.

e-waste management Conferences in 2015:
1. ICEEWM 2015: XIII International Conference on Environmental, Energy and Waste Management.
2. 10th Annual Biomarkers Congress 2015
3. Biomarkers & Diagnostics World Congress 2015
4. ICBCM 2015: XIII International Conference on Biomarkers and Clinical Medicine
5. 3rd annual IEEE Conference on Technologies for Sustainability.
6. Science and Information Conference 2015.
7. International Conference on Technologies for Sustainable Development (ICTSD-2015).
8. WasteExpo in 2015
9. Exhibition and conference for South-East Europe on waste management and recycling.
10. International Trade Fair on Waste Management, Recycling, Environmental Technologies and Renewable Energy.

Lists of Societies related to e-waste :
1. The Biomarkers Consortium
2. International Association of Electronics Recyclers : Albany, NY, US
3. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency : US
4. Basel Action Network : US
5. World Reuse, Repair, and Recycling Association : US
6. E-Scrap Solutions : US
7. The National Waste & Recycling Association : US
8. Consumer Electronics Association : US
9. STEP : UK
10. Electronic Recycling Association : Canada

Major e-waste management Companies: :
1. US Biomarkers : US
2. Pacific Biomarkers : US
3. Denovo Biomarkers : US
4. Resource Recycling, Inc : Portland, Oregon, US
5. Basel Convention : Switzerland, Europe.
6. Waste to Green : US
7. Regional Computer Recycling & Recovery (RCR&R) : US
8. American Electronics Recycling : US
9. Electronic Recyclers International, Inc : US
10. e-Stewards : USA

This page will be updated regularly.

This page was last updated on 13th Oct, 2014

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