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Adulteration refers to a process of substituting original crude drug partly or wholly with seemingly similar substances which are devoid of chemical entity or are inferior in their constituents and pharmacological property, simply debasement or impairment of crude drug is called as adulteration. Adulterants are usually sub-standard varieties of a crude drug or inferior drugs or artificially prepared commodities. Drug Adulteration intends alteration of any drug by the deliberate addition of a component not ordinarily part of that substance; usually used to imply that the drug is debased as a result. Drug Adulteration, Drug Abuse, Adulterated Drugs, Misbranded Drugs are the wings included in Pharmaceutical Preformulation Studies including subtopics Role of Preformulation studies in drug designing, Solubility: A big Hindrance for Drug Selection, Drug-excipient compatibility, Analytical methods of evaluation, Accelerated Stability Studies of a drug and Scale-Up problems.
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The testing for abused drugs, starting in Vietnam. Drug abuse has been part of our society for centuries, but technology to test body fluids for drugs has only been available for less than 50 yr. Testing for illicit drugs first began in Vietnam. SYNA Company, a small research organization located in Palo Atlo, California, developed a rapid test system capable of detecting opiates in urine. The system used an innovative homogeneous methodology based on the tumbling action of free radicles in solution.
Adulteration usually refers to mixing other matter of an inferior and sometimes harmful quality with food or drug intended to be sold. As a result of adulteration, food or drink becomes impure and unfit for human consumption. The federal Food and Drug Administration prohibits transportation of adulterated foods, drugs, and cosmetics in interstate commerce, as provided under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. No drug defined in an official compendium shall be deemed to be adulterated because it differs from the standard of strength, quality, or purity therefor set forth in such compendium, if its difference in strength, quality, or purity from such standard is plainly stated on its label.
Abuse of a drug is a critical problem all over the world. Common drugs of abuse include cocaine, cannabinoids, amphetamines, phencyclidine and benzodiazepines. However, certain adulterants, such as Klear™, Whizzies, Urine Luck™, and Stealth™, cannot be detected by using routine specimen integrity testing. These adulterants can successfully mask drug testing if the concentrations of certain abused drugs are moderate. Several spot tests have been described in the literature to detect the presence of such adulterants in urine. More recently, urine dipsticks are commercially available for detecting the presence of such adulterants along with creatinine, pH, and specific gravity.
The global revenue for advanced Drug and its adulterants is estimated to be $181.9 billion in 2013. In 2018, revenues are estimated to reach nearly $212.8 billion, demonstrating a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.2%.
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