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Streptococcus pneumoniae , pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic, facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus. A significant human pathogenic bacterium, S. pneumoniae was recognized as a major cause of pneumonia in the late 19th century, and is the subject of many humoral immunity studies.
S. pneumoniae resides asymptomatically in the nasopharynx of healthy carriers. The respiratory tract, sinuses, and nasal cavity are the parts of host body that are usually infected. However, in susceptible individuals, such as elderly and immunocompromised people and children, the bacterium may become pathogenic, spread to other locations and cause disease. S. pneumoniae is the main cause of community acquired pneumonia and meningitis in children and the elderly, and of septicemia in HIV-infected persons. The methods of transmission include sneezing, coughing, and direct contact with an infected person.
Despite the name, the organism causes many types of pneumococcal infections other than pneumonia. These invasive pneumococcal diseases include bronchitis, rhinitis, acute sinusitis, otitis media, conjunctivitis, meningitis, bacteremia, sepsis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, peritonitis, pericarditis, cellulitis, and brain abscess.
S. pneumoniae is one of the most common causes of bacterial meningitis in adults and young adults, along with Neisseria meningitidis, and is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adults in the USA. It is also one of the top two isolates found in ear infection, otitis media.Pneumococcal pneumonia is more common in the very young and the very old. It also is a major bacterium for invasive diseases like pneumonia and meningitis in South Asian children 12 years of age, though the evidence is of low quality and scarce.
S. pneumoniae can be differentiated from Streptococcus viridans, some of which are also alpha-hemolytic, using an optochin test, as S. pneumoniae is optochin-sensitive. S. pneumoniae can also be distinguished based on its sensitivity to lysis by bile, the so-called "bile solubility test". The encapsulated, Gram-positive coccoid bacteria have a distinctive morphology on Gram stain, lancet-shaped diplococci. They have a polysaccharide capsule that acts as a virulence factor for the organism; more than 90 different serotypes are known, and these types differ in virulence, prevalence, and extent of drug resistance.
1. 2nd World Congress and Expo on Applied Microbiology,
October 31- November 2, 2016 Istanbul, Turkey
4. Human Papillomavirus Conference,
May 2-3, 2016 Chicago, USA
5. Lupus Conference,
Oct 27-28, 2016 Chicago, USA
6. Allergy Conference,
March 29-30, 2016 Valencia, Spain
7. Mycology Conference,
Sept 12-14, 2016 San Antonio, USA
8. Medical Parasitology Conference,
Oct 17-19, 2016 Houston, USA
10. 5th Virology Conference,
Dec 1-3, 2016, Baltimore, USA
11. 2nd Influenza Conference,
Sept 12-14, 2016 Berlin, Germany
12. 2nd Parasitology Conference,
Oct 10-12, 2016 Manchester, UK
13. 6th Euro Virology Conference,
March 10-12, 2016 Madrid, Spain
16. 2nd Flu Conference,
Nov 17-19, 2016 San Francisco, USA
17. 3rd Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Conference,
July 11-12, 2016 Brisbane, Australia
18. European Infectious Diseases Conference,
Aug 1-3, 2016 Frankfurt, Germany
22. 72nd Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Conference,
San Antonio, USA
23. 26th European Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Conference, Istanbul, Turkey
24. Infection Prevention and Control Conference, Tübingen, Germany
25. 17th Infectious Diseases Conference, Hyderabad, India
26. 34th Annual Infectious Diseases Conference, Sacramento, California
27. ASM-Microbe 2016
28. 17th International Conference MPMI
29. MSBJ Annual Meeting
30. Problems in Listeriosis Conference
1. American society for Micro Biology
2. Society for General Micro Biology
3. Swiss Society for Micro Biology
4. Society for applied Microbiology
5. International Union of Microbiological societies
6. Federation of European Microbiological Societies
• Gilead Sciences, Inc.
• Amgen, Inc.
• Celgene Corporation
• Biogen Idec, Inc.
• Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
• Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
• Vertex Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
• Illumina, Inc.
• BioMarin Pharmaceutical, Inc.
• Agilent Technologies, Inc.
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