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As per available reports about 36 Conferences, 3 open access articleS are published on Single crystal.
A single crystal or monocrystalline solid is a material in which the crystal lattice of the entire sample is continuous and unbroken to the edges of the sample, with no grain boundaries. The absence of the defects associated with grain boundaries can give monocrystals unique properties, particularly mechanical, optical and electrical, which can also be anisotropic, depending on the type of crystallographic structure. These properties, in addition to making them precious in some gems, are industrially used in technological applications, especially in optics and electronics. Because entropic effects favor the presence of some imperfections in the microstructure of solids, such as impurities, inhomogeneous strain and crystallographic defects such as dislocations, perfect single crystals of meaningful size are exceedingly rare in nature, and are also difficult to produce in the laboratory, though they can be made under controlled conditions. On the other hand, imperfect single crystals can reach enormous sizes in nature: several mineral species such as beryl, gypsum and feldspars are known to have produced crystals several metres across. The opposite of a single crystal is an amorphous structure where the atomic position is limited to short range order only. In between the two extremes exists polycrystalline, which is made up of a number of smaller crystals known as crystallites,andparacrystallinephases.Single crystal silicon is used in the fabrication of semiconductors. Topics like crystal lattice lanthanum hexaboride solid shall be discussed.
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Scope and Importance
On the quantum scale that microprocessors operate on, the presence of grain boundaries would have a significant impact on the functionality of field effect transistors by altering local electrical properties. Therefore, microprocessor fabricators have invested heavily in facilities to produce large single crystals of silicon. Another application of single crystal solids is in materials science in the production of high strength materials with low thermal creep, such as turbine blades. Here, the absence of grain boundaries actually gives a decrease in yield strength, but more importantly decreases the amount of creep which is critical for high temperature, close tolerance part applications. Single crystal copper has better conductivity than polycrystalline copper. As of 2009, no single crystal copper is manufactured on a large scale industrially, but methods of producing very large individual crystal sizes for copper conductors are exploited for high performance electrical applications. These can be considered meta-single crystals with only a few crystals per metre of length. Single crystals are essential in research especially condensed-matter physics, materials science etc. The detailed study of the crystal structure of a material by techniques such asBragg diffraction and helium atom scattering is much easier with monocrystals. Only in single crystals it is possible to study directional dependence of various properties. In superconductivity there have been cases of materials where superconductivity is only seen in single crystalline specimen. They may be grown for this purpose, even when the material is other wise only needed in polycrystalline form.
Global Single Crystal Germanium Industry 2015, is the result of data gathered from industry experts and a mix of primary and secondary research methodologies. The report studies the international Single Crystal Germanium industry chain in detail, with focus on key product types, applications, development trends, production methodologies, technological developments, leading countries and companies supplying Single Crystal Germanium, and a detailed study of competitive landscape of the marketplace.Based on a close study of trends, and developments observed in the Single Crystal Germanium industry over the review period, the report forecasts industry’s overall progress on fronts such as production capacities, product costs, prices, profits, gross margins and production values over the period 2014-2020. The report studies the international Single Crystal Germanium industry starting from scratch – with the basic definition of Single Crystal Germanium, moving up with the study of elements forming the international Single Crystal Germanium industry, the structure of industry chain, an analysis of regulatory policies ruling the marketplace, and important news related to the industry.
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This page was last updated on 12th Sep, 2015
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