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As per available reports about 10 relevant journals, 15 Conferences, 30 workshops are presently dedicated exclusively to Microbial Fermentations and about 2,070 articles are being published on Microbial fermentation.
Fermentation is defined as the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates by bacteria, yeasts, or other microorganisms to alcohols and carbon dioxide under anaerobic conditions. During fermentation the industrial microorganisms are grown under controlled conditions with an aim of optimizing the growth of the organism for production of a target microbial product. The rate of fermentation depends on the concentration of microorganisms, cells, cellular components, and enzymes, temperature and pH. Industrial fermentation is of various types which include batch fermentation, fed batch fermentation, continuous fermentation.
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Scope and Importance
Alcoholic fermentation has a significant role in beverage industry for the production of wine, beer, whiskey, mead, vodka, rum, rice wine. Wine is produced by the fermentation of the natural sugars present in grapes whereas beer is produced by fermentation of grain starches that have been converted to sugar by the enzyme amylase. Sources of starch e.g. potatoes and unmalted grain can be added to the mixture, as the amylase can hydrolyse these starches as well. Whiskey and vodka are distilled beverages and gin and related beverages are formed by the addition of flavouring agents to a vodka-like feedstock during distillation.
Alcohol fermentation is done by yeast and some kinds of bacteria. These microorganisms convert sugars in ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. Alcoholic fermentation begins after glucose enters the cell. The glucose is broken down into pyruvic acid. This pyruvic acid is then converted to CO2, ethanol, and energy for the cell. Humans have long taken advantage of this process in making bread, beer, and wine. In these three product the same microorganism is used: the common yeast or Saccharomyces Cerevisae.
Fermentation chemicals are used as process initiators in several applications. Fermentation chemicals help in speeding the process reactions and saves time, energy and process cost. Fermentation chemicals are widely used in industries across the globe, owing to their natural structure, low cost and better outputs. The major product class of fermentation chemicals consists of alcohols, enzymes and organic acids. Fermentation chemicals are utilized in variety of applications in a wide range of chemical processes in industries such as alcohol industry, pharmaceutical industry, food and beverages industry, chemical industry, textile industry and rubber industry among others. The revenue generated by the global fermentation chemicals market was USD 41,567.7 million in 2012 which is expected to reach USD 60,123.9 million by 2019, growing at a CAGR of 5.4% from 2013 to 2019.
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This page was last updated on 12th Sep, 2015
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