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As per available reports about 61 relevant Journals and 29 Conferences are presently dedicated exclusively to Engine science and about 8638 open-access articles and 4800 conference proceedings are being published on Engine.
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert energy into useful mechanical motion. Heat engines, including internal combustion engines and external combustion engines (such as steam engines) burn a fuel to create heat, which then creates motion. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air and others—such as clockwork motors in wind-up toys—use elastic energy. . Applications of Engine are numerous like Engine and Drives, Engine and Transmission Technologies, Aerodynamics, Industrial Engineering, Construction Engineering etc.
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Scope and Importance:
Engine Conference provides the scope for opportunities to learn progressed by international scientists and academicians. Engines are the basic power generation tools of any mechanical engineering operations. Engine Conference offers excessive quality content to suit the diverse professional development of global industrial sector. It is a perfect platform to discuss the current discoveries and developments in the field of mechanical engineering.
The first commercially successful automobile, created by Karl Benz, added to the interest in light and powerful engines. The lightweight petrol internal combustion engine, operating on a four-stroke Otto cycle, has been the most successful for light automobiles, while the more efficient Diesel engine is used for trucks and buses. However, in recent years, turbo Diesel engines have become increasingly popular, especially outside of the United States, even for quite small cars.
Horizontally opposed pistons: In 1896, Karl Benz was granted a patent for his design of the first engine with horizontally opposed pistons. His design created an engine in which the corresponding pistons move in horizontal cylinders and reach top dead center simultaneously, thus automatically balancing each other with respect to their individual momentum. Engines of this design are often referred to as flat engines because of their shape and lower profile. They are or were used in: the Volkswagen Beetle, some Porsche and Subaru cars, many BMW and Honda motorcycles, and aircraft engines (for propeller driven aircraft), etc.
Advancement: Continuance of the use of the internal combustion engine for automobiles is partly due to the improvement of engine control systems (onboard computers providing engine management processes, and electronically controlled fuel injection). Forced air induction by turbocharging and supercharging has increased power outputs and engine efficiencies. Similar changes have been applied to smaller diesel engines giving them almost the same power characteristics as petrol engines. This is especially evident with the popularity of smaller diesel engine propelled cars in Europe. Larger diesel engines are still often used in trucks and heavy machinery, although they require special machining not available in most factories. Diesel engines produce lower hydrocarbon and CO2 emissions, but greater particulate and NOx pollution, than gasoline engines. Diesels are also 40% more fuel efficient than a comparable gasoline engine.
Increasing power: The first half of the 20th century saw a trend to increasing engine power, particularly in the American models. Design changes incorporated all known methods of raising engine capacity, including increasing the pressure in the cylinders to improve efficiency, increasing the size of the engine, and increasing the speed at which power is generated. The higher forces and pressures created by these changes created engine vibration and size problems that led to stiffer, more compact engines with V and opposed cylinder layouts replacing longer straight-line arrangements.
Combustion efficiency: The design principles favored in Europe, because of economic and other restraints such as smaller and twistier roads, leant toward smaller cars and corresponding to the design principles that concentrated on increasing the combustion efficiency of smaller engines. This produced more economical engines with earlier four-cylinder designs rated at 40 horsepower (30 kW) and six-cylinder designs rated as low as 80 horsepower (60 kW), compared with the large volume V-8 American engines with power ratings in the range from 250 to 350 hp, some even over 400 hp (190 to 260 kW).
Engine configuration: Earlier automobile engine development produced a much larger range of engines than is in common use today. Engines have ranged from 1- to 16-cylinder designs with corresponding differences in overall size, weight, engine displacement, and cylinder bores. Four cylinders and power ratings from 19 to 120 hp (14 to 90 kW) were followed in a majority of the models. Several three-cylinder, two-stroke-cycle models were built while most engines had straight or in-line cylinders. There were several V-type models and horizontally opposed two- and four-cylinder makes too. Overhead camshafts were frequently employed. The smaller engines were commonly air-cooled and located at the rear of the vehicle; compression ratios were relatively low. The 1970s and 1980s saw an increased interest in improved fuel economy, which caused a return to smaller V-6 and four-cylinder layouts, with as many as five valves per cylinder to improve efficiency. The Bugatti Veyron 16.4 operates with a W16 engine, meaning that two V8 cylinder layouts are positioned next to each other to create the W shape sharing the same crankshaft.
The largest internal combustion engine ever built is the Wärtsilä-Sulzer RTA96-C, a 14-cylinder, 2-stroke turbocharged diesel engine that was designed to power the Emma Mærsk, the largest container ship in the world. This engine weighs 2,300 tons, and when running at 102 RPM produces 109,000 bhp (80,080 kW) consuming some 13.7 tons of fuel each hour.
Typically an ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. There's a growing usage of renewable fuels like biodiesel for compression ignition engines and bioethanol for spark ignition engines. Hydrogen can be used as a fuel, where it would act as an energy carrier rather than as a primary energy source because it's not found unbounded in nature in appreciable quantities. It's possible to generate pure hydrogen from renewable energy. See hydrogen economy.
The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously described.
Growth in global automotive production is likely to remain at around+4% per year in 2014 and 2015,with an increase in production in China, India, and Mexico at the expense of Europe. Production is even expected to exceed 100 million vehicles by 2017. The major component manufacturers, which are essential for auto makers, have relocated to follow production and register healthy levels of profitability.
BCG predicts that, by 2016, one-third of world demand in automobile industry will be in the four BRIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Other potentially powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia.
According to a J.D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51% of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010. The study expects this trend to accelerate. Emerging auto markets already buy more cars than established markets.
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This page was last updated on 11th Sep, 2015
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