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As per available reports about 50 Relevant journals, 45 Conferences, 65 Workshops are presently dedicated exclusively to contraception and about 2,070 articles are being published on contraception.
The deliberate use of artificial methods or other techniques to prevent pregnancy as a consequence of sexual intercourse is contraception. Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, are methods or devices used to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods have been used since ancient times, but effective and safe methods only became available in the 20th century.
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Scope and Importance
According to worldwide estimates, some 600,000 women die each year of pregnancy-related causes, and 75,000 die following unsafe abortions.1 At least 200,000 of these maternal deaths are attributable to the failure or lack of contraceptive services.2 In addition to preventing mortality, effective contraception improves maternal health. Effective contraception improves the social and economic role of women and enables them to participate in society fully. Infants and children also derive benefits from effective contraception. As modern contraceptive methods have become more widely available throughout the world, infant mortality has decreased from approximately 150 deaths per 1000 live births in the 1950s to 80 deaths per 1000 live births in the 1990s.4 In developing countries, 53% of married women plan family size, and 90% of them use modern birth control methods such as female sterilization, oral contraceptives (OCs), and intrauterine devices (IUDs).
Contraceptive options include barrier methods, pills and vaginal rings, intrauterine devices (IUDs), implants and injections, sterilisation, emergency contraception and natural methods. The most effective methods of birth control are sterilization by means of vasectomy in males and tubal ligation in females, intrauterine devices (IUDs) and implantable contraceptives. This is followed by a number of hormonal contraceptives including oral pills, patches, vaginal rings, and injections. Less effective methods include barriers such as condoms, diaphragms and contraceptive sponge and fertility awareness methods. The least effective methods are spermicides and withdrawal by the male before ejaculation. Sterilization, while highly effective, is not usually reversible; all other methods are reversible, most immediately upon stopping them. Safe sex, such as the use of male or female condoms, can also help prevent sexually transmitted infections. Emergency contraceptives can prevent pregnancy in the few days after unprotected sex.
The global contraceptives market is estimated to grow at a lucrative rate over the forecast period owing to, increasing prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and growing need for population control. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 37% of the birth in the U.S. is a result of unwanted pregnancy, a proportion which has remained stagnant since 1982. According to a recent study published in 2015 in The Lancet, more impetus is on IUDs and implants as patients are mostly young women. The global oral contraceptive pills market was valued at USD 5,236.4 million in 2014 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 5.3% from 2015 to 2022.
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