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Bioequivalence is a term in pharmacokinetics used to assess the expected in vivo biological equivalence of two proprietary preparations of a drug. Suitable methods for assessing equivalence are
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Scope and Importance:
Bioequivalence Conference provides the scope for opportunities to learn progressed by international scientists and academicians. So many symposiums have been conducted and are to be organized all across the globe focusing on the significance of Bioequivalence Innovations, Therapeutic Possibilities and Technological Challenges is going to be organized which will focus on Bio equivalence.
Bioequivalence is a term in pharmacokinetics used to assess the expected in vivo biological equivalence of two proprietary preparations of a drug. If two products are said to be bioequivalent it means that they would be expected to be, for all intents and purposes, the same.
Birkett (2003) defined bioequivalence by stating that, "two pharmaceutical products are bioequivalent if they are pharmaceutically equivalent and their bioavailabilities (rate and extent of availability) after administration in the same molar dose are similar to such a degree that their effects, with respect to both efficacy and safety, can be expected to be essentially the same. Pharmaceutical equivalence implies the same amount of the same active substance(s), in the same dosage form, for the same route of administration and meeting the same or comparable standards."
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has defined bioequivalence as, "the absence of a significant difference in the rate and extent to which the active ingredient or active moiety in pharmaceutical equivalents or pharmaceutical alternatives becomes available at the site of drug action when administered at the same molar dose under similar conditions in an appropriately designed study.
Different approaches for establishing equivalence are PD studies, Clinical studies, in vitro methods. Therapeutic equivalence of a multiscource product can be assured when the multiscource product is both pharmaceutically equivalent/alternative and bioequivalent.
i. Pharmaceutically equivalent
ii. Same safety and efficacy profiles after administration of same dose
In determining bioequivalence, for example, between two products such as a commercially-available Brand product and a potential to-be-marketed Generic product, pharmacokinetic studies are conducted whereby each of the preparations are administered in a cross-over study to volunteer subjects, generally healthy individuals but occasionally in patients. Serum/plasma samples are obtained at regular intervals and assayed for parent drug (or occasionally metabolite) concentration. Occasionally, blood concentration levels are neither feasible nor possible to compare the two products (e.g. inhaled corticosteroids), then pharmacodynamic endpoints rather than pharmacokinetic endpoints are used for comparison. For a pharmacokinetic comparison, the plasma concentration data are used to assess key pharmacokinetic parameters such as area under the curve (AUC), peak concentration (Cmax), time to peak concentration (Tmax), and absorption lag time (tlag). Testing should be conducted at several different doses, especially when the drug displays non-linear pharmacokinetics.
An overview of the global market bioequivalence of drugs, including coverage of therapeutics such as antibacterials, antidepressants, anticancer agents, anti-arthritics, cardiovascular drugs sector is expected to reach $300.9 billion in 2013 and $518.5 billion in 2018, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 11.5%.
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