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Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates. Different molecular forms of bile acids can be synthesized in the liver by different species. Bile acids are conjugated with taurine or glycine in the liver, forming bile salts. Primary bile acids are those synthesized by the liver and Secondary bile acids result from bacterial actions in the colon. In humans, taurocholic acid, glycocholic acid, taurochenodeoxycholic acid and glycochenodeoxycholic acid are the major bile salts in bile. Bile acids also act as steroid hormones, secreted from the liver, absorbed from the intestine and having various direct metabolic actions in the body.
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Treatment of Hepatitis is on the cutting edge of medicine. Hepatitis B virus infection (HBV) has been recognized as a major health problem worldwide and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common chronic blood borne infection in the United States. Viral hepatitis treatment depends on how active the virus is in your body. Viral hepatitis is the most common cause of hepatitis worldwide. Other causes of non-viral hepatitis include alcoholic hepatitis and autoimmune hepatitis.
Bile acids are present in fat absorption and modulate cholesterol levels in the body. These are produced and facilitate from cholesterol in the liver and are stored in the gall bladder. With the gall bladder contraction bile acids into the intestine with feeding releases. Bile acids undergo enterohepatic circulation i.e. they are absorbed into the intestine and taken up by hepatocytes for re-excretion into biles.
More than 2 000 million people alive today have been infected with HBV at some time in their lives. Of these, about 350 million remain infected chronically and become carriers of the virus. Three quarters of the world’s population live in areas where there are high levels of infection. Every year there are over 4 million acute clinical cases of HBV, and about 25% of carriers, 1 million people a year, die from chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis or primary liver cancer. High endemicity areas include sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, the central Asian Republics, and some countries in eastern Europe. In these areas, about 70 to 90% of the population becomes HBV-infected before the age of 40, and 8 to 20% of people are HBV carriers. In countries such as China, Senegal, and Thailand, infection rates are very high in infants, and continue through early childhood. At that stage the prevalence of HBsAg in serum may exceed 25%. HBV is well studied in Saudi Arabia where the prevalence in the general population is 4.25%. The genotype of the virus D predominates in the Middle East. The highest prevalence (17.5%) of HCV in the world was reported in Egypt. The pooled prevalence of HCV in haemodialysis patients is 16% in Iran, 56% in Saudi Arabia, 52% in Syria, and 34% in Sudan.
5th Virology Conference
December 7-09, 2015 Atlanta, USA
2nd Hepatology Conference
May 09-11, 2016 Chicago, USA
May 12-14, 2016 Chicago, USA
7th Gastroenterologists Meeting
August 11-12, 2016 Birmingham, UK
October 17-19, 2016 Dubai, UAE
European Gastroenterology Conference
October 24-26, 2016 Valencia, Spain
9th Paris Hepatitis Conference
January 11-12, 2016 Paris, France
Asian pacific Association for the study of the liver 2016
February 20-24, 2016 Tokyo, Japan
International Conference on Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition
February 25-26, 2016 London, UK
The 51st Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of the Liver
April 13- 17, Barcelona, Spain
12th World Congress of the International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association
April 19 – 23, 2016, Sao Paolo, Brazil
International Liver Transplantation Society Annual International Congress
May 4 – 7, 2016, Seoul, South Korea
18th International Conference on Hepatology and Liver Disease
May 23 – 24, 2016, London, UK
Prague Hepatology Meeting 2016
September 22 – 24, 2016 Prague, Czech
World Congress of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition
October 4 – 10, 2016 Montreal, Canada
18th International Conference on Viral Hepatitis
December 12-13, 2016 Bangkok, Thailand
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This page was last updated on 14th Sep, 2015
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