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As per available reports about 10 relevant journals, 15 Conferences, 30 workshops are presently dedicated exclusively to breathing disorder and about 2,070 articles are being published on aging brain.
Aging brain is a major risk factor for most common neurodegenerative diseases, including Mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's disease and Lou Gehrig's disease. While much research has focused on diseases of aging, there are few informative studies on the molecular biology of the aging brain in the absence of neurodegenerative disease or the neuropsychological profile of healthy older adults. However, research does suggest that the aging process is associated with several structural, chemical, and functional changes in the brain as well as a host of neurocognitive changes. This page is devoted to reviewing the changes associated with healthy aging. Aging entails many physical, biological, chemical, and psychological changes.
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Scope and Importance:
Regional volume reduction is not uniform; some brain regions shrink at a rate of up to 1% per year, whereas others remain relatively stable until the end of the life-span. The brain is very complex, and is composed of many different areas and types of tissue, or matter. The different functions of different tissues in the brain may be more or less susceptible to age-induced changes. Structural Changes: Aging entails many physical, biological, chemical, and psychological changes. Therefore, it is logical to assume the brain is no exception to this phenomenon. The brain is very complex, and is composed of many different areas and types of tissue, or matter. The different functions of different tissues in the brain may be more or less susceptible to age-induced changes. The brain matter can be broadly classified as either grey matter, or white matter. Grey matter consists of cell bodies in the cortex and subcortical nuclei, whereas white matter consists of tightly packed myelinated axons connecting the neurons of the cerebral cortex to each other and with the periphery. Brain Plasticity: Brain plasticity refers to the brain's ability to change structure and function. One proposed mechanism for the observed age-related plasticity deficits in animals is the result of age-induced alterations in calcium regulation. The changes in our abilities to handle calcium will ultimately influence neuronal firing and the ability to propagate action potentials, which in turn would affect the ability of the brain to alter its structure or function. Due to the complexity of the brain, with all of its structures and functions, it is logical to assume that some areas would be more vulnerable to aging than others. Two circuits worth mentioning here are the hippocampal and neocortical circuits. It has been suggested that age-related cognitive decline is due in part not to neuronal death but to synaptic alterations. Thinning of the Cortex: Advances in MRI technology have provided the ability to see the brain structure in great detail in an easy, non-invasive manner in vivo. Studies using Voxel-based morphometry have identified areas such as the insula and superior parietal gyri as being especially vulnerable to age-related losses in grey matter of older adults. Sowell et al., reported that the first 6 decades of an individual's life were correlated with the most rapid decreases in grey matter density, and this occurred over dorsal, frontal, and parietal lobes on both interhemispheric and lateral brain surfaces. It is also worth noting that areas such as the cingulate gyrus, and occipital cortex surrounding the calcarine sulcus appear exempt from this decrease in grey matter density over time. Age effects on grey matter density in the posterior temporal cortex appear more predominantly in the left versus right hemisphere, and were confined to posterior language cortices. Certain language functions such as word retrieval and production were found to be located to more anterior language cortices, and deteriorate as a function of age. Sowell et al., also reported that these anterior language cortices were found to mature and decline earlier than the more posterior language cortices. It has also been found that the width of sulcus not only increases with age, but also with cognitive decline in the elderly. Age-Related Neuronal Morphology: There is converging evidence from cognitive neuroscientists around the world that age-induced cognitive deficits may not be due to neuronal loss or cell death, but rather may be the result of small region-specific changes to the morphology of neurons. Neurofibrillary Tangles: Age-related neuro-pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, diabetes, hypertension and arteriosclerosis make it difficult to distinguish the normal patterns of aging. One of the important differences between normal aging and pathological aging is the location of neurofibrillary tangles. Neurofibrillary tangles are composed of paired helical filaments Role of Oxidative Stress: Cognitive impairment has been attributed to oxidative stress, inflammatory reactions and changes in the cerebral microvasculature. The exact impact of each of these mechanisms in affecting cognitive aging is unknown. Oxidative stress is the most controllable risk factor and is the best understood. DNA Damage: At least 25 studies have demonstrated that DNA damages accumulate with age in the mammalian brain. These DNA damages include the oxidized nucleoside 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, single- and double-strand breaks, DNA-protein crosslinks and malondialdehyde adducts. Increases in DNA damages with age have been reported in the brains of mouse, rat, gerbil, rabbit, dog, and human. Young 4-day-old rats have about 3,000 single-strand breaks and 156 double-strand breaks per neuron, whereas in rats older than 2 years the level of damage increases to about 7,400 single-strand breaks and 600 double-strand breaks per neuron. Chemical changes: In addition to the structural changes that the brain incurs with age, the aging process also entails a broad range of biochemical changes. More specifically, neurons communicate with each other via specialized chemical messengers called neurotransmitters: Dopamine, Serotonin , Glutamate
Geographically, North America accounts for one of the largest markets followed by Europe. Baby boomers play a major role in the market growth. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the average life expectancy in the U.S. will be 77.1 years for men and 81.9 years for women by 2020. To tackle the rising aging population, favorable reimbursement policies and extensive presence of care centers are set up to assist the problems faced by aged people. Asia Pacific is anticipated to be the fastest growing region due to the factors such as rise in persistent medical conditions and rising concern for life expectancies among the geriatric population. Latin America holds a strong potential for the market growth owing to the high presence of geriatric population and growing health care facility.
Some of the key players in this market segment are, the Jewish Family Service, the International Association of Geriatric Care, National Association of Professional Care Managers, Senior Care Centers, the UF health, the World Health Organization and others. These players constantly participate in awareness programs, as well as mergers and acquisitions to serve the elderly society effectively.
International symposium and workshops
List of Best International Conferences
Relevant Society and Associations
1. 3rd European Geriatrics Congress, June 20-21, 2016, Alicantae, Spain
3. Aging Conference, Aug 8-9, 2016 Las Vegas, USA
4. 5th Geriatric Medicine Conference Nov 17-19, 2016 Atlanta, USA
9. Rheumatology and Aging Conference 2015 08 - 11 Sep 2015,Cambridge, United Kingdom
10. IAGG Asia/Oceania 2015 — 19- 22 Oct 2015,Chiangmai, Thailand
11. 2015 American College of Rheumatology Annual Meeting 06- 11 Nov 2015,San Francisco, United States
12. Pro-Aging Europe Congress 2015 19 Nov -22 Nov 2015 Brussels, Belgium.
13. Ageing 2016 09- 11 Feb 2016, London, United Kingdom.
14. 4th World Parkinson Congress (WPC 2016), September 20-23, 2016, Portland.
15. World Congress on Active Ageing 2016, June 28/July 01/, 2016, Melbourne
16. International Federation on Ageing - 13th Global Conference: Disasters in an Ageing World - Readiness, Resilience and Recovery, June 21-23, 2016, Brisbane.
17. American Geriatrics Society Annual Scientific Meeting 2016, May 19-21, 2016, Long Beach
18. American Society on Aging (ASA) 2016 Aging in America Conference, March, 2016, Washington
19. 14th International Athens/Springfield Symposium on Advances in Alzheimer Therapy, March 20-24, 2016, Athens
20. AGHE‘s 42nd Annual Meeting and Educational Leadership Conference, March 9-12, 2016, Long Beach
21. Eastern Caribbean Cruise Conference 2016 - Palliative Medicine and End of Life Care: 2016 Update Including Related Topics in Neurology, February 14-21, 2016, Fort Lauderdale
1. British Geriatrics Society
2. Canadian Geriatrics Society
3. Geriatric society of India
4. The Hong Kong Geriatrics Society
5. Oregon Geriatrics Society
6. European union Geriatric medicine society
5. Merck & Co.
6. Johnson & Johnson
9. Gilead Sciences
15. Bristol-Myers Squibb
17. Novo Nordisk
22. Daiichi Sankyo
23. Biogen Idec
25. Merck KGaA
This page will be updated regularly.
This page was last updated on 12th Sep, 2015
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