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Vesosomes are multi-compartmental structures of lipidic nature used to deliver drugs. Vesosomes can be considered multivesicular vesicles (MVV) and are, therefore, liposome derived structures. Vesosomes are nested bilayer compartment in vitro via the inter digested bilayer phase formed by adding ethanol to a variety of saturated phospholipids. Multiple compartments of the vesosomes give better protection to the interior contents in serum. It consists of one or more bilayers enclosing an aqueous core that contains unilamellar vesicles that function as internal compartments which contain the drug and which can vary in composition from each other.
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Scope and Importance:
An important variety of molecular structures can be encapsulated in vesosomal vesicles, such as proteins with complex three-dimensional structures or condensed DNA. But the most common use is to fill the vesosome’s vesicles with certain drugs that are going to be delivered in a particular area. Due to the small size of the vesosome and its good protection of the inner vesicles, it can be used in various cases, doing different functions. Vesosomes are able to locate inflamed areas because of its receptors that are included in the outer lipid bilayer during its construction. Once in the inflamed area, the vesosome will deliver an anti-inflammatory substance from its vesicles though a pH gradient. They are able to locate tumours too. They can even be used to create, in a positioned area, a different nano-environment (considering that vesosome size is about 50 - 200 nanometers) either by altering the pH or the concentration of a particular substance. To sum up, the use of a vesosome means an easy and simple way for many substances to be encapsulated in lipid bilayer vesicles in order to be transported and delivered safely.
The external bilayer defines the lumen, limits emission of the vesicle contents, and protects the vesicle contents from degradation due to lipolytic enzymes. Its unique properties enable localized drug delivery in specific parts of the body and extend the duration of drug effect. Also, a vesosome is easy to produce and offers the flexibility to deliver multiple drugs within a single carrier, which has been shown to offer important advantages in chemotherapy. Internal vesicle diameters range from 20-500 nm and vesosome diameters range from about 0.1 micron to more than 1.0 micron. Vesosome structure has taken advantage of the progress in liposome development as steric stabilization, pH loading of drugs (it is loaded by pH gradient), and intrinsic biocompatibility (it can be modified with a variety of agents, for example to specifically target a disease site, or promote adhesion or fusion).
According to IMS Health Consulting, an international research company, in 2012 the size of the global pharmaceutical market reached $940 billion. In monetary terms it grew by 6%. In the future the sector is expected to grow at no less than 3% to 4% a year and if this happens the global pharmaceutical market is expected to reach $1.1 trillion by 2015 and will reach $1.2 trillion in 2016 and up to $1.5 trillion by 2020. The global demographic, epidemiological and economic changes are transforming the pharmaceutical market. The world population is growing rapidly and is projected to raise from 7 billion in 2011 to 7.7 billion in 2020 and 9.6 billion in 2050, hence an increase in the demand for pharmaceuticals.
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This page was last updated on 10th Sep, 2015
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