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Photo detectors are devices used for the detection of light – in most cases of optical powers. As the requirements for applications vary considerably, there are many types of photo detectors which may be appropriate in a particular case. Photodiodes are semiconductor devices with a p–n junction or p–i–n structure (i = intrinsic material) (→ p–i–n photodiodes), where light is absorbed in a depletion region and generates a photocurrent. Such devices can be very compact, fast, highly linear, and exhibit a high quantum efficiency (i.e., generate nearly one electron per incident photon) and a high dynamic range, provided that they are operated in combination with suitable electronics. A particularly sensitive type is that of avalanche photodiodes, which are sometimes used even for photon counting. Metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) photo detectors contain two Schottky contacts instead of a p–n junction. They are potentially faster than photodiodes, with bandwidths up to hundreds of gigahertz. Topics like Photo detectors, Phototransistors, Photodiodes shall be discussed.
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Photodiodes for optical radiation measurements are used without reverse bias in most applications since this operation yields the lowest dark current. To obtain photodiodes that operate at a low bias and have a low dark current, it is necessary to produce epitaxial layers that are pure and have few defects (such as dislocations, point defects, and impurity precipitates). Furthermore, a planar device structure requires that a guard ring be used to keep the electric field around the photoreceptive area from increasing too much. Fabrication and processing technologies such as impurity diffusion, ion implantation, and passivation play important roles in the production of reliable photodetectors.
The Global Optical Sensor Market is rapidly growing across the globe due to the increase in demand for the handheld devices like tablets and smart phones. Smart phones and Tablets are the key growth contributors and as long as the market persists there will be increase in demand for optical sensors like light and proximity sensors. On the other hand image sensor market is skyrocketing compared to other sensors as it’s very widely used. The Market for image sensors goes from cameras to medical applications. The wide market for image sensors is making it the largest segment in the optical sensor industry. The Global Optical Sensor Market is slated to grow at 9.81% CAGR year on year for next 5 years to reach $34billion by 2020.
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