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As per available reports about 70 open access articles, 314 conferences, 19 national symposiums are presently dedicated exclusively to Drug resistance and about 169 speakers gave presentations on Drug resistance.
Antimicrobial resistance (Drug resistance) occurs when microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites change in ways that render the medications used to cure the infections they cause ineffective. When the microorganisms become resistant to most antimicrobials they are often referred to as “superbugs”. This is a major concern because a resistant infection may kill, can spread to others, and imposes huge costs to individuals and society
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When microbes become resistant to medicines, the options for treating the diseases they cause are reduced. This resistance to antimicrobial medicines is happening in all parts of the world for a broad range of microorganisms with an increasing prevalence that threatens human and animal health. The direct consequences of infection with resistant microorganisms can be severe, including longer illnesses, increased mortality, and prolonged stays in hospital, loss of protection for patients undergoing operations and other medical procedures, and increased costs. Antimicrobial resistance affects all areas of health, involves many sectors and has an impact on the whole of society. Antibiotic resistance develops when bacteria adapt and grow in the presence of antibiotics. The development of resistance is linked to how often antibiotics are used. Because many antibiotics belong to the same class of medicines, resistance to one specific antibiotic agent can lead to resistance to a whole related class. Resistance that develops in one organism or location can also spread rapidly and unpredictably, through for instance exchange of genetic material between different bacteria, and can affect antibiotic treatment of a wide range of infections and diseases. Drug-resistant bacteria can circulate in populations of human beings and animals, through food, water and the environment, and transmission is influenced by trade, travel and both human and animal migration. Resistant bacteria can be found in food animals and food products destined for consumption by humans. Some of these features also apply to medicines that are used to treat viral, parasitic and fungal diseases; hence the broader term antimicrobial resistance.
Data on sensitivity are usually part of programmes to ensure that recommendations on antimicrobial use are still in line with accepted sensitivity and are usually integral to specific programmes for the control of, for example, malaria, HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections, foodborne infections and tuberculosis. Each year in the United States, at least 2 million people become infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics and at least 23,000 people die each year as a direct result of these infections. Many more people die from other conditions that were complicated by an antibiotic-resistant infection. Antibiotic use in Europe, expressed in defined daily dose (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants, ranges from 10.0 in the Russian Federation, 14.6 in Sweden to 45.2 in Greece, according to 2008 data from the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC) project. The statistics depend on the strength of monitoring systems. In the European Union (EU), Norway and Iceland, 5–12% of hospital patients acquire an infection during their stay. Each year, an estimated 400 000 present with a resistant strain, of whom 25 000 die, on average. In addition to causing deaths and increased suffering, AMR has huge economic implications. Multidrug-resistant bacteria in the EU are estimated to cause an economic loss of more than €1.5 billion each year.
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This page was last updated on 09th Sep, 2015
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