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In molecular biology, Biochips are essentially miniaturized laboratories that can perform hundreds or thousands of simultaneous biochemical reactions. Biochips enable researchers to quickly screen large numbers of biological analytes for a variety of purposes, from disease diagnosis to detection of bioterrorism agents. • Biochips are devices that can contain anywhere from tens to millions of individual sensor elements (or biosensors) • The sensors are packed together into a package typically the size of a microscope slide. Because so many sensors can be put into such a small area, a huge number of distinct tests can be done very rapidly. • Biochips are often made using the same microfabrication technology used to make microchips. Unlike microchips, however, biochips are generally not electronic. • The key premise behind biochips is that they can do chemistry on a small scale. Each biosensor can be thought of as a "microreactor”, which does chemistry designed to sense a specific analyte. • Biosensors can be made to sense a wide variety of analytes, including DNA, protein, antibodies, and small biological molecules. • Fluorescence is often used to indicate a sensing event. Automated microscopy systems can be used to "read" the chip, i.e. determine which sensors are fluorescing • Most biochips are 2D arrays of sensors placed carefully in a grid arrangement. The position position of the sensor on the chip determines determines its function function.
A biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (micro arrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to get higher throughput and speed. Typically, a biochip’s surface area is not longer than a fingernail. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operation in one second, a biochip can perform thousands of biological operations, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds.
A genetic biochip is designed to “freeze” into place the structures of many short strands of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the basic chemical instruction that determines the characteristics of an organism. Effectively, it is used as a kind of “test tube” for real chemical samples.
A specifically designed microscope can determine where the sample hybridized with DNA strands in the biochip. Biochips helped to dramatically increase the speed of the identification of the estimated 80,000 genes in human DNA, in the world wide research collaboration known as the Human Genome Project. The microchip is described as a sort of “word search” function that can quickly sequence DNA.
In addition to genetic applications, the biochip is being used in toxicological, protein, and biochemical research. Biochips can also be used to rapidly detect chemical agents used in biological warfare so that defensive measures can be taken. So many symposiums have been conducted and are to be organized all across the globe focusing on the significance of Biochips. Some of them are Internationl symposium on Electronic System Design focusing on Biochips and BIT’s 6th International Symposium of Enzyme & Biocatalysis 2015 which will deal with various facts about Biochips.
OMICS Group International is an amalgamation of Open Access publications and worldwide international science conferences and events. Established in the year 2007 with the sole aim of making the information on Sciences and technology ‘Open Access’, OMICS Group publishes 400 online open access journals in all aspects of Science, Engineering, Management and Technology journals. OMICS Group has been instrumental in taking the knowledge on Science & technology to the doorsteps of ordinary men and women. Research Scholars, Students, Libraries, Educational Institutions, Research centers and the industry are main stakeholders that benefited greatly from this knowledge dissemination. OMICS Group also organizes 300 International Conferences annually across the globe, where knowledge transfer takes place through debates, round table discussions, poster presentations, workshops, symposia and exhibitions. Moreover, OMICS Group is featured with 30,000 editorial board members, 35,000 reviewer, 1000 international associations and 3 million readers.
• The Korean BioChip Society (KBCS)
• American Dental Association
• The Korean BioChip Society
• Biomedical Engineering Student Society
• National Association for Biomedical Research (NABR)
• Biomedical Associations of Wisconsin
• California Biomedical Research Association
• North Carolina Biomedical Association: NCBA
• AVIVA Biosciences
• Alpha Innotech
• Applied Precision • Berthold Technologies
• Ciphergen Biosystems
Conferences related to Biochips
•The 2nd Regional Symposium on BIOSENSORS, BIODIAGNOSTICS BIOCHIPS.
• 3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors and Bioelectronics
• 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)
• IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (BioCAS)
• 2014 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC)
• IEEE International Solid- State Circuits Conference - (ISSCC)
• IEEE Sensors Applications Symposium (SAS)
• IEEE Sensors
• IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits
• IEEE Topical Conference on Biomedical Wireless Technologies, Networks, and Sensing Systems (BioWireless)
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This page was last updated on 20th Oct, 2014
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